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Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Copyright © 1998
Australian Military History has always been a fascination of mine ever since becoming interested in World War I during my youth. In every book on the subject are names whose deeds can never be erased - as Dr C.E.W. Bean said "the good and the bad, the greatness and smallness of the story will stand". The spirit of ANZAC Day will forever continue to pay tribute to the sacrifices of our servicemen and women.
However, the final resting place of those whose deeds are firmly entrenched in our nations history, provides a more poignant remembrance, today their whereabouts often forgotten in the mists of time. Many, if not all of Melbourne's metropolitan cemeteries contain recognisable names from our military history books.
Of all such cemeteries, Brighton General (North Road, Caulfield South, Melbourne, Victoria) offers an extraordinary diversity in both quality and depth, possibly unsurpassed by any other in Australia. Below is a brief outline of the many military and related interments, a list by no means exhausted:
General Sir John MONASH
Considered Australia's greatest military commander who, despite his Jewish background and training in the militia rose to command the A.I.F. in France on 31 May 1918. One of only a few Allied Generals to escape the war unscathed from criticism, Monash earned a reputation as a meticulous planner and for his technical mastery of all arms and tactics. Knighted in 1918, he died on 8 October 1931 at his home Iona - 33 St George's Road, Toorak, and was accorded one of the largest State funerals ever seen in Melbourne.
Monash's second-in-command during the formation of the 4th Brigade was Brig-General John Patrick 'Paddy' McGLINN (St Kilda Cemetery) who died on 7 July 1946.
Vice-Admiral Sir William Rooke CRESWELL
Began his career with the British Royal Navy in 1865 and later migrated to Australia in 1878. From 1886, Creswell began a silent but influential campaign to increase the size and deployment of Australia's naval defence force. It wasn't until October 1913 that Australia had a commanding fleet worthy of Creswell to deserve the title as "Father of the RAN", serving as first Chief of Naval Staff and continuing the role until his retirement in 1919. In 1901, Creswell commanded HMCS Protector in the Boxer Rebellion but saw no action. Knighted in 1911 and promoted to Vice-Admiral in 1922, Creswell died on 20 April 1933.
Surgeon-General Sir William Daniel Campbell WILLIAMS
Williams is chiefly remembered for his pioneering military medical tactics devised during the Boer War. He single handedly re-organised the service in which the medical units would remain close to the front line. The only regular medical officer in Australia prior to WWI as Director-General of Medical Services, Williams was the most eminent and respected person in his field. However, like Lieut-General James LEGGE (New Cheltenham Cemetery), Williams was unfairly treated and saw his authority undermined by Sir William Bridges in favour of Sir Neville Howse VC . He saw little active service eventually returning to Australia in 1916 with a "bitter and not unnatural chagrin at the turn of events", a Knighthood awaited his return. He died on 10 May 1919.
Major-General Edwin TIVEY
Best remembered in the history books for the label - "Tivey's Chocs" - given to the 8th Brigade, the unit Tivey commanded throughout the Great War. A firm, sometimes English-like commander, but always respected, he was Mentioned in Despatches 6 times, and after the war commanded the 5th Division from November 1918 to May 1919 and later the 2nd Cavalry Division (1921-6). An Inglewood boy, Tivey served with distinction in the Boer War with the 4th Victorian (Imperial) Contingent and was awarded the D.S.O. for a daring surprise attack on 11 February 1900. He died on 19 May 1947 at Nauroy - 15 Kooyong Road, Toorak.
Major-General George Jameson JOHNSTON
Another name behind a label. "Johnston's Jolly" on the Gallipoli peninsula ("to jolly up the Turks") is named after this artilleryman. Johnston was described as "a hard-goer, fearless, enduring, capable" and served with distinction in the Boer War commanding the 62nd Battery (Royal Field Artillery). Later in WWI he commanded the 2nd Australian Field Artillery Brigade at Gallipoli, rising to Brigadier-General in charge of the 2nd Division Artillery. At Ypres he perfected the art of the protective barrage until he asked to be sent home in a protest against Major-General Walter COXEN (Springvale Cemetery) being appointed Corps Artillery Commander. From April 1918 to May 1920, Johnston later served as Military Administrator of New Guinea from April 1918 to May 1920, succeeding Brig-General Sir Samuel PETHEBRIDGE (Box Hill Cemetery). He died on 23 May 1949.
Sergeant Maurice Vincent BUCKLEY V.C., D.C.M.
Serving with the 13th Battalion, he won the coveted award under the name of Gerald Sexton on 18 September 1918 at Le Verguier, when a number of enemy outposts escaped the creeping barrage necessitating daring action. He rushed down a bank seizing an artillery field gun holding up the company, ran over exposed ground to capture a trench-mortar post, all between silencing 6 posts and personally taking 30 prisoners. Described as one of those soldeirs 'who don't know fear', Buckley died on 27 January 1921 as a result of his fearless nature in a horse riding accident at Boolara, Gippsland, was the first Australian V.C. recipient to die after returning home.
Click here to view photo of Sgt Buckley's gravesite.
Lieutenant-Colonel James Ernest NEWLAND V.C.
Newland was one of two permanent soldiers to win the V.C. in the Great War. As a Captain with the 12th Battalion in April 1917, a preluding assault on the Hindenburg line required the capture of a number of villages. On two separate occasions, Newland's company was against a formidable enemy at one stage 10 to 1, but through his fearless leadership, managed to hold the line. Newland also served during the Boer War with the 4th Battalion (Australian Commonwealth Horse) and on the home front during WWII. Residing at 54 Briggs Street, Caulfield, he died on 19 March 1949 aged 67.
Warrant Officer Walter PEELER V.C.
Serving with the 3rd Pioneer Battalion during the Third Battle of Ypres on 4 October 1917, Peeler was acting in an observatory role, but in the resulting confusion actually ended up joining the first attacking wave. Daring action was required to capture an enemy post. He was later directed to three separate posts, in all, accounting for over 30 of the enemy. For this action Peeler was awarded the V.C. For many years Peeler was a public figure as Shrine Custodian (1934-64); he later enlisted for overseas service in WWII only to be captured at Java in 1942 and was lucky to survive as a P.O.W. "His duty nobly done", Peeler died on 23 May 1968 at 10 Moore Street, South Caulfield.
Lieutenant-Colonel W. (William) Donovan JOYNT V.C.
Joynt, who was awarded the highest individual honour at Chuignes on 23 August 1918 as a Lieutenant with the 8th Battalion, was the last surviving Australian WWI V.C. recipient. A foundation and life long member of Legacy, Joynt was instrumental with BLACKETT (q.v.) and others in influencing the R.S.L. to support the Shrine of Remembrance concept, eventually succeeding in May 1927 after a bitter 3½ year struggle. "Ever in the forefront of the battle" as inscribed on Joynt's headstone, he later served in WWII as Commanding Officer 3rd Garrison Battalion. He died on 5 May 1986 aged 97.
Air Commodore William James Yule GUILFOYLE M.C.
Son of the renowned landscape gardener William R. GUILFOYLE (Brighton Cemetery). Guilfoyle had a varied military career in WWI enlisting with the 4th Light Horse Regiment in August 1914; six months later he joined the Royal Field Artillery. In July 1915 he gained a commission with the British Royal Flying Corps, and was later attached to the Australian Flying Corps (Egypt) in July 1916 taking part in Battles of Romani and Gaza. Described as an "ideal airman for pluck, daring and splendid nerve" he was awarded the Military Cross on 3 March 1917 and the following year flew in the Battle of Piave (Italy). In WWII, Guilfoyle served in various posts with the RAF rising to the position of Commandant Air Training Corps (Nth-West command) from 1942 to 1946. Mentioned in Despatches 6 times, he died on 24 April 1948 as a result of an explosion whilst camping.
Lieutenant-Colonel Eric William TULLOCH M.C. & Bar
Ballarat born, Tulloch served as a Captain with the 11th Battalion at Gallipoli. During the fatal landing on 25 April 1915, his company managed to reach "Battleship Hill", some 1000 yards beyond the settled line - one of only 2 formations of troops to reach their immediate objective. Badly wounded, he recuperated in Australia eventually returning to the Battalion and was awarded the Military Cross in two separate daring enterprises on 23 August 1918 near Chuignolles and at the Hindenburg Outpost on 18 September. He later ended the war as temporary commander of the 12th Battalion. Tulloch's murder by a burglar at "Lauriston Hall", East Melbourne on 8 May 1926 aged 47 remains a mystery.
The last resting place of Lt-Col Eric Tulloch
Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Arnold CROWTHER
Crowther served with various units during the Great War, notably with the 21st Battalion from May 1915 to August 1916 and January 1917 to March 1918. In between, he served as second-in-command of the 22nd to help rebuild the unit after the devastating loss of leaders suffered during the Battle of Pozieres. In March 1918 he was promoted Lieut-Colonel in command of the famous 14th Battalion a period later described as "eminently successful". Six times Mentioned in Despatches, and awarded the D.S.O. "for gallant and skilful handling of his Company at Pozieres" between 26 July and 6 August 1916, Crowther was also mentioned in a Special Order for his leadership during the torpedoing of Southland on 2 September 1915. He died on 26 April 1966 aged 78.
Colonel John WALSTAB
Enlisting in October 1914 as a Captain with the 5th Battalion, Walstab was wounded at Gallipoli on 8 May 1915 during the ill-fated Battle of Krithia. In November 1916 he was promoted to command the Battalion with the rank of Lieut-Colonel. In 1917 he was awarded the D.S.O. and appointed to various training positions in England. In the Pacific region during the war years he served in a number of appointments, notably as Superintendent of Police in New Guinea (1927-42). In WWII, Walstab served in the Middle East as Assistant Provost Marshall with the 1st Australian Corps (1940-41), and later as Deputy Provost Marshall with Headquarters (1941-42). Twice Mentioned in Despatches, Walstab died on 16 March 1957 at 200 Kambrook Rd, Caulfield.
Major-General Major Francis DOWNES
After joining the British Army in 1848 and later serving with the Royal Artillery in the Crimean War (May 1855 to February 1856), Downes was recommended to the position of Commandant of Military Forces (South Australia). He held the position from 1877 to 1885 and from 1888 to 1893 before moving to Victoria. Downes later served as temporary Commandant of Military Forces (Victoria) from November 1899 to oversee the transfer of the Defence Department to the Commonwealth. He died on 15 October 1923 at 81 Outer Crescent, Brighton. His son Major-General Rupert Downes died in the same air crash that killed Major-General George Vasey on 5 March 1945.
Warrant Officer David Augustus O'KEEFFE D.C.M. & Bar
One of only 27 1st A.I.F. recipients of two Distinguished Conduct Medals, O'Keeffe joined the 10th Australian Field Ambulance on 28 August 1915 as Sergeant. While under heavy fire at Messines (June 1917) he ensured that wounded men were cleared by organising stretcher-bearers. Likewise at Ypres (October 1917), again under heavy fire he rescued a number of injured men. For both actions he earned the D.C.M. O'Keeffe died on 2 September 1964 and resided at 21 Havelock Street, East St Kilda.
Colonel Duncan MCLEISH
Gaining his commission in April 1887 with the Victorian Mounted Rifles, McLeish fought in the Boer War with the 1st Victorian Contingent, and was conspicuous in various campaigns including Pink Hill on 12th February 1900, "a glorious but fatal day in the history of the Victorian contingent". McLeish was later to command the 2nd Battalion (Australian Commonwealth Horse) on 22 January 1902. For his outstanding war service he was Mentioned in Despatches, and awarded the C.M.G. In WWI, he commanded the 1st Remount Unit in Egypt and was Mentioned in Despatches twice. A notable Yea pastoralist and citizen, he died on 17 April 1920 at 89 New Street, Middle Brighton.
Colonel Wilfrid Kent FETHERS
A militia soldier who didn't join the A.I.F. until 5 May 1915, Fethers served as second-in-command of the 24th Battalion at Gallipoli and later as Lieut-Colonel in command of the 23rd. He later oversaw the 23rd's involvement at Pozieres until wounded on 3 August 1916. An earlier illness at Gallipoli affected his eyesight and he returned home on 2 August 1918. At the time of his death on 10 July 1976, Fethers was the "longest serving member of the Naval and Military Club, Melbourne". He resided at 41 The Ridge, Canterbury.
Major-General Gustave Mario RAMACIOTTI
Italian born, Ramaciotti was a man of flair who undertook a number of career paths - between 1904 and 1911 he was a director of J.C. Williamson theatrical company. He began his soldiering career in 1878 with the Queensland Defence Force rising to the honorary rank of Major-General as Inspector-General of Administration with the Defence Department. Ramaciotti served with the Italian Army in 1911 against Turkey and was the author of a number of military publications. He died on 6 December 1927.
Click here to view photo of Maj-Gen Ramaciotti's headstone.
Colonel Alfred Emanuel 'Teddy' OTTER
Otter is best remembered as "the father of the Victorian Rangers", a long-forgotten, but illustrious Victorian colonial infantry unit, whom he commanded from 1889 to 1901. In his 63rd year he was given command of the 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles in the Boer War serving largely in the Transvaal area before being invalided home on 5 August 1901. Before arriving in Australia in 1882, Otter had a varied career with the Imperial Army - in 1858 he served with HMS Excellent and later with the Royal Marine Light Infantry for 8 years. His death on 20 March 1920 was lamented by all whom knew Otter, and his headstone testifies to the respect he earned by those who he commanded.
Brigadier-General Leslie Herbert KYNGDON
A regular soldier (rare in colonial Australia) which began with the NSW Volunteer Forces (Artillery) in 1878. He fought in the Sudan campaign with the NSW Infantry Battalion and later in the Boer War with the British Royal Artillery. By 1919 Kyngdon had risen to the honorary rank of Brig-General after conspicuous service on the homefront during WWI as Commandant of Western Australia and Chief Inspector of Coastal Defences. At the time of his death on 13 April 1923, Kyngdon was the last surviving Australian officer who had served at Sudan in 1885.
Lieutenant-Colonel Harry McLeod DUIGAN
Gaining his commission in June 1897 with the 1st Battalion (Militia Infantry Brigade), Duigan enlisted on 7 October 1915 with the rank of Major as second-in-command of the original 29th Battalion. In June 1916 he was given command of the 60th Battalion but it was Major Geoff McCrae who oversaw the unit's bloody battle at Fromelles on 19-20 July 1916 in which it suffered the crippling loss of 16 officers and 741 other ranks. Promoted to Lieut-Colonel on 27 July 1916, Duigan was left to rebuild the shattered unit through the bitter winter of 1916-17, his health eventually deteriorated and he relinquished command in February 1917. A noted sportsman and prominent solicitor, he died on 6 August 1931.
Private Francis Edward POLINESS
This inconspicuous soldier has a special place in Australian military history as being part of the daring exploit that earned Albert JACKA (St Kilda Cemetery) Australia's first V.C. in WWI. On 19 May 1915 at Courtney's Post, a section of the trench had been captured by the Turks. Lieutenant Crabbe sought four volunteers - one being Poliness - to cover Jacka in a heroic bayonet charge from a concealed communication trench - Poliness commenting "It's sink or swim". When this failed, Poliness's party threw two bombs creating a smoke screen for Jacka to launch a successful individual rear assault, Poliness himself shot two Turks attempting to crawl over the parapet. He later served in WWII and died on 8 December 1952 at 7 Palermo Street, South Yarra.
Private Claude William PHILIPS
Yet another soldier more significant than the name suggests. Until his recent death on 4 September 1997 aged 100, Philips was the last survivor of the 59th Battalion, and also Church of England Grammar's oldest boy (1908-1912). Enlisting on 29 April 1916, Philips arrived in France late December to play tenor horn with the battalion band, but heavy casualties saw him take part in the Battle of Bapaume. Under the command of the controversial Major-General Harold 'Pompey' ELLIOTT (Burwood Cemetery), Philips was part of the defence of Villers-Bretonneux (24 April 1918) and the Battle of Amiens (8 August 1918) - both glorious days in Australia's military history. A quiet man, on his war service, Philips spoke little saying "it was too horrific".
Lieutenant William Arthur Mordey BLACKETT
Enlisting on 13 February 1917, Blackett served in the little known Education Service Unit. Later in life, he played a vital role as member of Legacy and as a councillor with the Royal Institute of Architects (1907-52, President 1916-18 and 1928-30). He lobbied with others for the original Shrine of Remembrance concept in the face of fierce opposition from Sir Keith Murdoch's Herald, the R.S.L. and numerous politicians. Thrice married, Blackett died on 2 June 1962 at 71 South Road, Brighton.
H. (Harold) Septimus POWER
Australia's finest equine painter - described as "outstanding as a painter of action, and had no rival in his field". Appointed official War Artist in 1915, Power used this skill to produce many illustrations of our involvement - "Following through near Harbonnieres, 9 Aug 1918" (1920), "Camel Corps at Magdhaba, 23 Dec 1916" (1922) and "Third Ypres, Taking the Guns through, 31 July 1917" (1919) described as full of dash and spontaneity. Residing at 54 Crisp Street, Hampton, Power died on 8 December 1951.
John Hare FURPHY
The man behind the famous military idiom "furphy" - a rumour, false report or absurd story. (Other variations of "furphy" are furph and furphy-king - a retailer of rumours). As the Furphy Water Tanks and their moral overtones were used at Gallipoli and Egypt where water was scarce, the cart driver's inadvertently spread military gossip and rumours. Hence the word was born. A pioneering and notable Shepparton man, Furphy died on 23 September 1920 at 63 Page Street, Albert Park.
Other military and related interments:
Edward John 'Teddy' RUSSELL
Commonwealth Senator from 1906 until his untimely death in 1925, Russell served as a cabinet Minister from September 1914 to December 1921. An anti-conscriptionist but a personal friend of Prime Minister William Hughes, Russell was the only Victorian Labour member to follow Hughes to form the Nationalist Government in February 1917. He served in various ministerial positions including Acting Minister for Defence in 1919 during Sir George Pearce's absence to America.
Oswald Robinson SNOWBALL
The man behind the Protestant voice for 23 years as Grandmaster of the Orange Lodge from 1905. Described by one writer as "the vanguard of individuals... to keep a watchful eye on the... Archbishop Daniel Mannix". During WWI, in particular the conscription referendum, Snowball - a staunch Imperialist - and Mannix were in a constant battle of wills.
Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas William CARRE-RIDDELL
Served with the Victorian Mounted Rifles under Colonel Tom PRICE (Melbourne General Cemetery) and later commanded the 9th Light Horse Regiment. Honorary aide-de-camp to three successive Victorian Governors he also commanded the military escort for King George's opening of Parliament in 1901.
Captain Rupert Carl 'Soss' WERTHEIM
Son of the prominent merchant Hugo WERTHEIM (Brighton Cemetery) and a distinguished sportsman himself who played Davis Cup tennis for Australia in 1922. Enlisting with the 23rd Battalion in June 1915, Wertheim served at Gallipoli before transferring to the 2nd Pioneer Battalion in April 1916 and later fought at Pozieres. He was appointed to the Intelligence Corps serving with the 2nd Australian Division from January 1917 to March 1918 before being promoted to Corps Headquarters in March 1918. Was Mentioned in Despatches 5 times as well as in Sir Douglas Haig's personal Despatches of 7 November 1917.
Sergeant Vincent SMITH
Joined the Australian Flying Corps in February 1916 and served with 'B' Flight, 3rd Squadron. In France, he was awarded the Meritorious Service Medal "for rescuing an aviator from a blazing machine after three attempts", himself severely wounded. Also played a part in the Squadron's operations accounting for the death of Captain Baron Manfred von Richthofen on 21 April 1918, and the next day was the officer in charge of the party that fired the honorary shots over the Red Baron's grave.
Colonel James Byres LAING
As Finance member of the Australian Military Board (April 1910 to August 1915), Laing was one of a select few from the Defence Department called to brief the Prime Minister Sir Joseph Cook on 2nd August 1914 upon notification by the Imperial Government of a warning in hostilities. Later appointed as Director of Naval and Military Audit (1916-1919), Laing travelled to Egypt on a special mission to re-organise the Pay Corps.
Lieutenant-Colonel Gershon Berndt BENNETT
Had a distinguished career in dentistry and served in both World Wars. After studying in America, Bennett gained a commission in November 1915 as a Lieutenant and served in various medical positions rising to the rank of Captain with the 4th Convalescent Hospital (England) in August 1918. In WWII, Bennett served in Australia and New Guinea and became second-in-command of Dental Services. In April 1921, he married Bertha Monash the only child of Sir J. MONASH (q.v.) whom had "the highest opinion of his son-in-law".
Lieutenant-Colonel Sir George Adlington SYME
Nephew of David SYME (Boroondara Cemetery) publisher of The Age who excelled his name as a distinguished Surgeon. Syme served with the Australian Army Medical Corps as Lieut-Colonel from November 1914 to February 1916, notably with the 1st Australian General Hospital (Egypt) and with the Hospital Ship Gascon.
Major William Thomas McCORMACK
Appointed in March 1913 to the first Country Roads Board serving under Chairman William CALDER (Old Cheltenham Cemetery), a position McCormack later held. In WWI, McCormack enlisted with the 10th Field Company (Engineers), and distinguished himself during the battle of Messines acting as Commanding Engineer for the 3rd Division under his mentor Sir J. MONASH (q.v.).
Captain Sir (Henry) Cecil COLVILLE
Described "as the medical statesman of the twentieth-century Australia", Colville served with the Royal Army Medical Corps (1915) and later with No. 14 General Hospital, 46th Field Ambulance (15th Scottish Division) returning to Australia in May 1916 with the rank of honorary Captain. He later transferred to the Australian Army Medical Corps working at No. 5 General Hospital (Melbourne).
Major Patrick Eugene COLEMAN
Noted public servant with the Department of Defence who served in various administrative positions in the 1st A.I.F. rising to the position of Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General Headquarters (London).
Sir Bernard Thomas HEINZE
The celebrated Professor of Music and Conductor, Heinze received a commission in May 1916 as 2nd Lieutenant with the exclusive British Royal Garrison Artillery Special Reserve Regiment and fought in various battles including Arras, Ypres, Somme and the blood bath of Passchendaele.
Sergeant (Theodore) Penleigh BOYD
Noted landscape artist and second generation member of the famous Boyd artistic dynasty who served with the Australian Electrical & Mechanical, Mining & Boring Company (Transport Section) and was badly gassed at Ypres in 1917. Described by The Age at the time of his death in 1923 "as without doubt one of the greatest painters of landscape Australia has produced".
Penleigh's elder brother (William) Merric BOYD also enlisted, serving with the Australian Flying Corps from May 1917 to September 1919. Merric is credited with being the first person in Australia to cast individual hand-made pottery.
Lieutenant-Colonel James George GILLESPIE
Distinguished surveyor who was elected President of the Institute Surveyors of Australia (1953-55); he also served as President of Legacy (1938). In the Great War, Gillespie served as Sergeant with the 12 Field Artillery Brigade from September 1916 returning to Australia in September 1919. In WWII he rose to the rank of Lieut-Colonel with the Australian Survey Corps 1940-46.
Lieutenant Paul JONES
Enlisting in June 1916, Jones served with the 1st Australian Tunnelling Company in France and was later gassed in April 1917. In October 1917, he was appointed a Physical Training and Bayonet instructor (England) a similar position he held prior to enlisting. A State and Federal politician after the war, Jones was also a member of the Australian War Memorial Board from 1930 to 1946.
Duncan Elphinstone McBRYDE
Prominent politician and businessman who owned Kamesburgh - North Road, Brighton. The Repatriation Department purchased the mansion in September 1918 for £17,000, later funded by the Baillieu family for use as a convalescent to the returned soldiers.
Brigadier-General Thomas John COURTNEY
Appointed Colonel with the Sea Transport Service in September 1915 and later in command of the A.I.F. Training Camps, his war service ended in April 1917. A Secretary of the Brighton Beach R.S.L, little is known of Courtney's military career, but as a highly ranked officer is worthy of a mention.
Sergeant Harry (Henry) Oke B. LANE
One of approximately 35 US Civil War veterans buried in Victoria, the most senior believed to be Major James CAMPBELL (Boroondara Cemetery) of the 10th NY Heavy Artillery. Little is known of this unique person - his headstone reads "HARRY O B LANE / SERG CO B 25 NY INF / CIVIL WAR / APR 26 1846 DEC 5 1913".
Can a Defending Victoria visitor shed any light?
NOTE: Footnotes were supplied with this study, but have been omitted here for presentational and space reasons. Details can be supplied by the author, who can be emailed below'.
EMAIL TRAVIS M. SELLERS HERE
Allen, H. (Editor), "THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE RECORD OF ACTIVE SERVICE", 1926.
Arthur, J.M., Ramson, W.S. (Editors), "W.H. DOWNING'S DIGGER DIALECTS", Oxford University Press, 1990.
Austin, R.J., "BLACK AND GOLD. THE HISTORY OF THE 29TH BATTALION", Slouch Hat Publications, 1997.
Barton, L.L., "FOR DISTINGUISHED CONDUCT AND MERITORIOUS SERVICE", NSW Military Historical Society, 1984.
Bean, C.E.W., "THE OFFICIAL HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA IN THE WAR OF 1914-18", University of Queensland Press (reprint), 6 volumes.
Butler, A., "OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY MEDICAL SERVICES IN THE WAR 1914-18", Australian War Memorial, 1943, 3 volumes.
Corfield, R.S., "HOLD HARD, COBBERS. THE STORY OF THE 57TH AND 60TH AND 57/60TH AUSTRALIAN INFANTRY BATTALIONS 1912-1990", 57/60th Battalion Association, Volume I , 1992.
Gorman, E., "WITH THE TWENTY-SECOND. A HISTORY OF THE 22ND BATTALION, A.I.F.", H. H. Champion, 1919 (reprint).
Grant, I., "A DICTIONARY OF AUSTRALIAN MILITARY HISTORY", Random House Australia, 1992.
Grant, I., "JACKA, V.C. AUSTRALIA'S FINEST FIGHTING SOLDIER", MacMillan Australia, 1989.
Gurner, J., "THE ORIGINS OF THE ROYAL AUSTRALIAN ARMY MEDICAL CORPS", The Hawthorn Press, 1970.
Harvey, W., "THE RED AND WHITE DIAMOND. THE OFFICIAL HISTORY OF THE 24TH BATTALION", Alexander McCubbin, 1920.
Joynt, W.D., "BREAKING THE ROAD FOR THE REST", Hyland House, 1979.
Kiddle, J. (Editor), "WAR SERVICES OF OLD MELBURNIANS 1914-1918", 1923.
Laffin, J., "DIGGER. THE LEGEND OF THE AUSTRALIAN SOLDIER", MacMillan Australia, 1986.
Middleton, M. (Intro), "THE ART OF H. SEPTIMUS POWER", Rigby Limited, 1974.
Nairn, B., Serle, G. (Editors), "AUSTRALIAN DICTIONARY OF BIOGRAPHY", Melbourne University Press (14 volumes).
Pedersen, P.A., "MONASH AS MILITARY COMMANDER", Melbourne University Press, 1992.
Perry, W., "THE NAVAL & MILITARY CLUB. A HISTORY OF ITS FIRST HUNDRED YEARS 1881-1981", Lothian Publishing Company, 1981.
Reay, W., "Australians at War...With the Australian Regiment from Melbourne to Bloemfontein", A.H. Massina & Co, 1900.
Scott, E., "THE OFFICIAL HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA IN THE WAR OF 1914-1918. AUSTRALIA DURING THE WAR", University of Queensland Press, 1989 (reprint).
Serle, G., "JOHN MONASH. A BIOGRAPHY", Melbourne University Press, 1982.
Smith, N., "THE RED AND BLACK DIAMOND. THE HISTORY OF THE 21ST BATTALION 1915-1918", Mostly Unsung Military History, 1997.
Vertigan, T., "THE ORANGE ORDER IN VICTORIA", 1979.
Wanliss, N., "THE HISTORY OF THE FOURTEENTH BATTALION A.I.F.", 1929 (re-print).
Wigmore, L. (Editor), "THEY DARED MIGHTILY", Australian War Memorial, 1986 (revised edition).
Mrs Elizabeth Durre, daughter of Gershon Bennett, letter dated 6 May 1998.
Biographical cards for the Official History of the War 1914-18 (AWM140, State Library of Victoria). Medical Journal of Australia (MJA). Reveille and Mufti magazines. Shepparton News, Yea Chronicle, The Age, Sun News Pictorial, Argus, and Herald Newspapers. The Victorian Historical Magazine (VHM). Who's Who in Australia on microfiche (State Library of Victoria).
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